Keyword: RFID, History

Posted on 22 Sep, 2019


RFID is the abbreviation of Radio Frequency Identification, which is radio frequency identification.

Radio frequency identification technology is an automatic identification technology that began to emerge in the 1990s.This automatic identification technology is a technology that uses radio frequency signals to realize contactless information transmission through spatial coupling (alternating magnetic field or electromagnetic field) and to achieve identification purposes through the transmitted information.

Simply speaking, it is contactless identification. The main difference between it and radio technology is that radio frequency identification technology does not require a power supply, does not require an energy-driven device, and can actively send its own stored information.Common commercial products based on RFID technology include inductive electronic chips or proximity cards, proximity cards, contactless cards, electronic tags, electronic barcodes, and the like.

The history of RFID technology, find out!

1940-1950: The improvement and application of radar gave birth to radio frequency identification technology. In 1948, the theoretical basis of radio frequency identification technology was established.

1950-1960: The exploration phase of early RFID technology, mainly in laboratory experiments.

1960-1970: The theory of radio frequency identification technology has been developed and some application attempts have begun.

1970-1980: Radio frequency identification technology and product development are in a period of great development, and various radio frequency identification technology tests are accelerated. Some of the earliest RFID applications have emerged.

1980-1990: Radio frequency identification technology and products entered the commercial application stage, and applications of various scales began to appear.

1990-2000: The standardization of radio frequency identification technology has been paid more and more attention. Radio frequency identification products have been widely adopted, and radio frequency identification products have gradually become a part of people’s lives.

After 2000: Standardization issues are increasingly valued by people. Radio frequency identification products are more abundant. Active electronic tags, passive electronic tags and semi-passive electronic tags have been developed. The cost of electronic tags has been continuously reduced, and the scale application industry has expanded.

Application of RFID Radio Frequency Identification Technology in Low Frequency, High Frequency, Ultra High Frequency and International Standards

First, low frequency (from 125KHz to 134KHz)

characteristic:

1. The general operating frequency of the sensor operating at low frequencies is from 120KHz to 134KHz, and TI’s operating frequency is 134.2KHz. The wavelength of this band is about 2500m.

2. In addition to the influence of metallic materials, the general low frequency can pass through the material of any material without reducing its reading distance.

3. Readers working at low frequencies do not have any special licensing restrictions worldwide.

4. Low frequency products come in different packages. A good package is that the price is too expensive, but it has a service life of more than 10 years.

5. Although the magnetic field region of this frequency drops rapidly, a relatively uniform read/write area can be produced.

6. Compared with RFID products in other frequency bands, the data transmission rate in this frequency band is relatively slow.

7. The price of the sensor is relatively expensive compared to other frequency bands.

main application:

1. Livestock management system

2. Automotive anti-theft and keyless door opening system applications

3. Marathon racing system application

4. Automatic parking fee and vehicle management system

5. Application of automatic refueling system

6. Hotel door lock system application

7. Access control and security management system

Compliance with international standards:

a) ISO 11784 RFID animal husbandry application – coding structure

b) ISO 11785 RFID Animal Husbandry Application – Technical Theory

c) ISO 14223-1 RFID animal husbandry application – air interface

d) ISO 14223-2 RFID Animal Husbandry Application – Protocol Definition

e) ISO 18000-2 defines low frequency physical layers, anti-collision and communication protocols

f) DIN 30745 is primarily a European standard for waste management applications

Second, high frequency (working frequency is 13.56MHz)

1. The operating frequency is 13.56MHz, and the wavelength of this frequency is about 22m.

2. In addition to metallic materials, the wavelength of this frequency can pass through most materials, but tends to reduce the reading distance. The sensor needs to be some distance away from the metal.

3. The band is recognized globally and has no special restrictions.

4. The sensor is usually in the form of an electronic tag.

5. Although the magnetic field region of this frequency drops rapidly, it can produce a relatively uniform read/write area.

6. The system is anti-collision and can read multiple electronic tags at the same time.

7. Some data information can be written to the tag.

8. The data transfer rate is faster than the low frequency, and the price is not very expensive.

main application:

1. Application of library management system

2. Gas cylinder management application

3. Management and application of garment production lines and logistics systems

4. Three-meter pre-charge system

5. Hotel door lock management and application

6. Large conference personnel channel system

7. Fixed asset management system

8. Management and application of pharmaceutical logistics system

9. Intelligent shelf management

Compliance with international standards:

a) ISO/IEC 14443 proximity-coupled IC card with a maximum read range of 10 cm.

b) ISO/IEC 15693 uncoupled IC card with a maximum read range of 1 m.

c) ISO/IEC 18000-3 This standard defines the physical layer, anti-collision algorithm and communication protocol for the 13.56 MHz system.

d) 13.56MHz ISM Band Class 1 defines the 13.56MHz EPC-compliant interface definition.

Third, ultra high frequency (operating frequency is between 860MHz and 960MHz)

1. In this band, the global definition is not the same – Europe and parts of Asia define a frequency of 868MHz, North America defines a frequency band between 902 and 905MHz, and the recommended frequency band in Japan is between 950 and 956. The wavelength of this band is about 30cm.

2. At present, the power output of this band is currently defined uniformly (defined as 4W in the United States and 500mW in Europe). It is possible that the European limit will rise to 2W EIRP.

3. Radio waves in the VHF band cannot pass many materials, especially suspended particles such as water, dust, and fog. Compared to high frequency electronic tags, the electronic tags in this band do not need to be separated from the metal.

4. The antennas of electronic tags are generally strips and labels. The antenna is available in both linear and circular polarization to meet the needs of different applications.

5. This band has a good read range, but it is difficult to define the read area.

6. It has a high data transfer rate and can read a large number of electronic tags in a short time.

main application:

1. Management and application in the supply chain

2. Production line automation management and application

3. Air parcel management and application

4. Container management and application

5. Management and application of railway parcels

6. Application of logistics management system

Compliance with international standards:

a) ISO/IEC 18000-6 defines the VHF physical layer and communication protocol; the air interface defines Type A and Type B; supports both readable and writable operations.

b) EPCglobal defines the structure of the electronic article code and the VHF air interface and communication protocol. For example: Class 0, Class 1, UHF Gen2.

c) Ubiquitous ID The organization of Japan, which defines the UID coding structure and communication management protocol. A complete RFID system consists of two parts, Reader and Transponder. The principle of operation is that the Reader transmits a certain frequency of infinite wave energy to the Transponder, which is used to drive the Transponder circuit to send the internal ID code. At this time, the Reader receives the ID. Code. Transponder’s speciality is that it is free of battery, contact-free, and free of card, so it is not afraid of dirt, and the chip password is the only one in the world that cannot be copied, with high safety and long life.

The application of RFID is very extensive. At present, typical applications include animal wafers, automobile chip alarms, access control, parking lot control, production line automation, and material management.

RFID tags can be classified into two types by power consumption: active tags and passive tags.