Nowadays, LF, HF, UHF RFID tags have good performance in all walks of life, but few people pay attention to the key reason why tags perform well because of the frequency of tags. Tags of different frequencies also have a huge impact on multiple performance indicators such as interference sensitivity and reading range.

Therefore, you need to choose a suitable frequency according to your business or personal needs. Of course, if you want to save time, it is also a good choice to hand over this matter to a suitable supplier.

If you want to know about chips with different frequencies, you can click this link to choose. Newbega has sufficient chips and various styles. You can contact us at any time.

Table of Contents

Low-Frequency (LF) RFID System     

Generally speaking, the operating frequency of the low frequency system is between 30kHz-300kHz. While most low frequency systems operate at 125kHz, this test situation is more stable. The second one uses a higher frequency of 134kHz. The low frequency system has a read range of 10 cm and its read speed is slower than the high frequency system. And it will also become less sensitive to interference from radio waves (a type of electromagnetic wave, electromagnetic energy that travels through space).

LF
LF cards

The principle of the low-frequency system is mainly through inductive coupling. There is a transformer coupling between the RFID tag coil and the reader coil, and at the same time, the alternating field of the RFID reader also generates a voltage in the antenna, which is used as a power supply voltage. The customer has achieved the expected effect by properly defining the magnetic field area of the low-frequency system, but the field strength cannot last for too long.

Features:(LF)

– Operating frequency between 120-134kHz

-This system can move across any object irrespective of the material, and the reading distance will not reduce.

– Adapt to all kinds of readers with low frequency operation

-Long service life, usually more than ten years, and various packaging forms and options

-Stable frequency, strong anti-interference ability in the reading distance of less than one meter

Advantage:

– LF equipment used worldwide has the same specification, no matter which country the product is used in, there is no difference in frequency

– Works well near liquids and metals, and it has significant advantages in animal management.

shortcoming:

– The data transmission speed of the low-frequency system is slower among the three frequency systems.

-Compared to other bands, it’s more expensive and doesn’t perform well on multiple reads.

High-frequency(HF) RFID Systems

The operating frequency of the high-frequency system is generally between 3-30MHz. Many high-frequency RFID systems operate at 13.56MHz, which is a relatively standard frequency. At the same time, their reading range is between 10cm-1m. In terms of anti-interference, their performance is better than that of low-frequency systems, and their sensitivity is moderate.

HF
HF tags

The High-Frequency system transforms the reader antenna’s voltage by toggling off and on the card reader’s load resistance. And it induces the amplitude modulation on the antenna voltage alongside the long-distance card reader. 

Not only that, but in humid environments, such as rainy days, the high frequency band is also very effective. High frequency bands are useful for payment, data transfer applications, and bill management. At present, there are many high-frequency standards on the market, including the smart card based on the MIFARE chip we mentioned last time-ISO/IEC 14443 and ISO/IEC 14443 A.

In the ISO-15693 standard, the HF frequency band is also used to track items, and several other standards will be used in different usage environments, such as electronic money cards.

Features:(HF)

– The high frequency band operates at 13.56 MHz; the wavelength is 22m.

-Although the wavelength of the high frequency band is not very penetrating when facing metal materials, it can pass through a variety of non-metal materials, thereby shortening the reading distance.

– High frequency bands are very popular around the world, so there are no obvious restrictions.

-The high-frequency sensor is generally an electronic tag, which is a small device integrating electronic components and chips, which can be used to store and transmit information, and usually consists of a microchip and an antenna.

– It is able to produce very even read and write areas, although not for long.

-It has similar characteristics to the anti-collision system and can read multiple electronic tags at the same time.

– Data information can be arbitrarily transcribed into a suitable RFID tag.

– The propagation rate is faster than the low frequency band.

-fair price

– High frequency band complies with international standards such as ISO/IEC 14443 for MIFARE technology for proximity cards and smart cards. And follow the ISO-15693 standard to track the product.

advantage:

-HF has a wide range of uses and can be adapted to a variety of situations

– HF tags do not require batteries or power

– One reader can read several tags at the same time.

– Relatively cheap.

shortcoming:

-Shorter read range than microwave and UHF

– Compared with UHF, it can’t read a large number of tags (it can only read multiple tags, but the number is not as exaggerated as the former)

Ultra-high Frequency(UHF) RFID System

Generally speaking, the operating frequency of the UHF system is between 300MHz~3GHz, and the RAIN RFID tag system complies with the UHF-GEN2 standard using 860-960 MHz.

UHF
UHF card and tags

Although there are different delineated ranges in different regions, the operating frequency of the system in most countries is between 900-915 MHz.

This UHF system has a read range of up to 12m in length. Not only that, UHF RFID tags have a faster data transmission speed than HF or LF, and in terms of anti-interference, the performance of UHF frequency band is relatively poor. To address this, some UHF product designers have come up with innovative ways to design antennas, tags and readers to ensure high performance even in adverse climates.

And for passive UHF tags, they are cheaper and easier to create than HF and LF tags.

UHF tags perform well in large warehouses or exhibitions, and its efficiency and speed are just what people need. We can easily find RFID systems in various exhibitions and transit areas. The system with UHF tags has a longer transmission distance, which greatly improves efficiency.

Features:(UHF)

-In different countries, UHF uses different frequencies. The EU standard is 865-868 MHz; the US is 902-928 MHz, India is 865-867 MHz, Australia is 920-926 MHz, and Japan is 952-954 MHz. However, the wavelengths of these frequency bands are around 30cm.

-UHF power output is 4 watts in the US and 500mW in Europe

-In general, UHF radio waves cannot penetrate many materials, especially suspended particles such as fog, dust, metal and water. In comparison with HF electronic tags, UHF tags do not need to be dissociated from the metal.

– The antenna consists of a tag and a strip, and the antenna has circular polarization and linear polarization structures to meet the needs of various applications.

-The reading distance of the UHF band is better, but the definition of the reading area is more difficult.

– High data transfer rate, multiple RFID tags can be read in a short time.

-Unlike LF and HF tags, UHF RFID tags are only regulated by the ISO 18000-63 global standard.

advantage:

– UHF is much cheaper than LF and HF

-The performance of UHF recognition speed is amazing

-UHF tags have good range, up to 10 meters

-UHF tags can be read in batches, suitable for inventory counting

shortcoming:

-There is a possibility of increased RF transmission complications.

-The difference between the three frequency bands

After reading the above three common frequency types that RFID systems can use, I think you should have your own judgment on how to choose the ideal frequency for your needs. LF tags have a long wavelength, so they can pass through long, thin metal objects, and they also perform very well in environments with high water content. such as drinks or fruit

For high frequency tags, they work well on metallic objects and objects with medium to high water content. Typically, high-frequency RFID systems have an operating range of inches, but can extend up to three feet.

Applications of HF RFID can be used for travel tickets, patient flow tracking and library book tracking. In terms of range, UHF frequencies offer more than LF and HF, depending on the setup of the RFID system.

Also, UHF frequencies transmit data faster than LF and HF. However, it has a shorter wavelength and may have a weaker signal, so it performs poorly when traveling through water and metal.

UHF tags are ideal for bulk use of multiple products/items, such as boxes of items in storage or athletes rushing to the finish line. Due to the long reading distance, exceeding LF and HF, UHF RFID tags are used for parking lot access control and ETC.

Conclusion

Today, RFID has enabled brands all over the world to efficiently and accurately manage their goods while properly controlling their supply chains.

If you are a business owner or operations team leader, it is critical for you to think through and research the type of frequency that is best for your operation. This will be a detailed process because RFID technology uses a variety of frequencies.

When you understand the frequencies available and what you’ll get, you’ve taken a fundamental step toward making the right decision.

This guide fully explains the advantages and disadvantages of different frequency RFID systems. If you want to know more, you can click the green button below to get in touch with us. Newbega company is an old RFID product supplier with 20 years of experience , can provide different solutions, welcome to inquire.

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